Iren Levina received her Ph.D. in Economics at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in 2012 and joined Kingston University. She was previously a research assistant at Political Economy Research Institute at UMass Amherst (PERI) and at SOAS (University of London).

Iren has worked on financialisation, with a particular emphasis on the macroeconomic sources and social significance of the rise in financial profits, the transformation of banking and theories of banking, intra-financial sector lending, rising concentration in banking, and remuneration in finance. Her research areas include financial institutions and markets, financial stability, heterodox economics, history of economic thought, and philosophy. She has published work on the relationship between the financial and non-financial sectors of the economy, the transformation problem, and the transition economies.

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Long-term trends in intra-financial sector lending in the U.S. 1950 - 2012

Paper Working Paper Series | | Nov 2014

This paper examines the evolution of intra-financial sector lending in the United States, 1950- 2012, presenting estimates constructed from the Federal Reserve’s Flow of Funds Accounts.